Decolonizing Africa In 21st Century: The Socio-Economic Policies In Africa and South Africa.

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Decolonizing Africa In 21st Century: The Socio-Economic Policies In Africa and South Africa.

Africa was largely decolonized during the 1960s and 1970s with South Africa as a last country to be decolonized in 1994.  Due to the fact that the people of South Africa, in particular the African (black) people achieved ultimate human rights in 1994 during the first democratic elections. The democratic Constitution then gave the African people of South Africa rights to participate in socio-political, and economic policy decision making processes. Largely to the fact that the country was now rightfully in the hands of the African people through the African National Congress. However twenty one years in democracy there are still a huge gap with regard to social equalities. This is not only visible in South Africa but across the whole African continent. History has shown us that none of the decolonized African countries have really managed to at least get close to socio-economic equalities. With all the resources that Africa has what could be the delay for South Africa and other African countries to reach the equality and what needs to be done to get Africa where it needs to be?

In attempts to answer the first question we need to recognize that colonization had a huge of impact in delaying Africans to learn the governance systems. Most colonizers’ withdrawal from their colonies were more of abandoning them and leaving them in peril to restructure from war town communities to bankrupt governments to have to learn how to deal with differences amongst various ethnic groups that exists in Africa. In many instances after colonies were decolonized, the new government was much led by ethnic group that has more population than other groups. Such made government to be one sided in terms of service delivery and this then led to protests that ended in violence and what was referred as ethnic cleansing. This was highly visible in countries such as Uganda under the leadership of Idi Amin and Rwanda during the Rwanda genocide and of course other parts of Africa. In a common business environment, usually when a retiring Chief Executive has to mentor an incoming Chief Executive Officer to ensure that there is a smooth transition, something that colonizers did not consider. During the midst of this confusion certain foreign countries will be fueling opposing rebellious movements to fight government while such countries are taking home black marked natural resources at the lowest price available. The main problem has been the positive support from former colonizers in ensuring that there is a smooth transition. Such lack of support led to chaotic states such as Mali and Central African Republic.

In attempts to answer the second question, African leaders need to recognize that it has been more than twenty years since decolorizers and there is a need for a formulation of a coordinated economic policies by all African states. The coordinated economic policies have to ensure that the African states support one another in trade based on the resources that each country has. Secondly there is also a need of an African relief and development bank that will serve as a back-up reservoir for any country that may need financial bailout on loan terms. The third step is to establish an aid agency that will provide technical support to combat social ills such as HIV endemic, draught, establish agricultural businesses, and strengthening research units. The fourth step is to promote industrialization of businesses at the same time recognizes that African countries are still developing and needs to strive towards providing free government services. The last step should be the use of single currency in all states. These steps needs to be uniformed and agreed about by all countries before involving any overseas countries in the businesses. Mineral resources needs to circulate in Africa before going outside.


Thabang Magwena is a Tshwane University of Technology graduate in BTECH Degree Public Management. He has presented a paper on information systems at SAFSAS conference at University Of Kwazulu Natal. Thabang’s currently working as Monitoring and Evaluations Manager. He is an Honors in International Politics hopeful for 2016. I have huge interest in international democratic policies.